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Cell therapy (also called cellular therapy or cytotherapy) is therapy in which cellular material is injected, grafted or implanted into a patient; this generally means intact, living cells. For example, T cells capable of fighting cancer cells via cell-mediated immunity may be injected in the course of immunotherapy.Cell therapy originated in the nineteenth century when scientists experimented by injecting animal material in an attempt to prevent and treat illness. Although such attempts produced no positive benefit, further research found in the mid twentieth century that human cells could be used to help prevent the human body rejecting transplanted organs, leading in time to successful bone marrow transplantation.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target. The drug is most commonly an organic small molecule that activates or inhibits the function of a biomolecule such as a protein, which in turn results in a therapeutic benefit to the patient. In the most basic sense, drug design involves the design of molecules that are complementary in shape and charge to the biomolecular target with which they interact and therefore will bind to it. Drug design frequently but not necessarily relies on computer modeling techniques. This type of modeling is sometimes referred to as computer-aided drug design. Finally, drug design that relies on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the biomolecular target is known as structure-based drug design. In addition to small molecules, biopharmaceuticals and especially therapeutic antibodies are an increasingly important class of drugs and computational methods for improving the affinity, selectivity, and stability of these protein-based therapeutics have also been developed
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer develops when the old cells do not die and instead grow out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. These extra cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumor. Cancer may occur anywhere in the body. In women, breast cancer is one of the most common. In men, it’s prostate cancer. Lung cancer and colorectal cancer affect both men and women in high numbers. Oncology is the study of cancer. A branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer which includes the use of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, surgery and other procedures.Cancer is uncontrolled growth of cells in the body which may lead to organ failure and death. Cancer cells may evade immune recognition by this system, but many leukemia's and lymphomas express CD19, a surface antigen. Alternatively, gene therapy approaches may be designed to directly kill tumor cells using tumor-killing viruses, or through the introduction of genes called suicide genes into the tumor cells. The body responds to uncontrolled cell growth in several ways one of which is to deploy white blood cells of the immune system to detect, attack, and destroy the cancerous cells. It has been known for quite some time that the immune system can be manipulated to control cancer. This session discusses more about cancer cell therapy.
Advancements in cancer treatments are emerging rapidly. 2017 marked the first approval of a tumor-agnostic therapy and the first adoptive T-cell and gene therapy for cancer, demonstrating that the breakthrough therapy designation and other new approaches in oncology drug development have allowed for a more efficient review and approval process. Research results on other immunotherapies and targeted therapies released in 2017 have changed the treatment paradigms for lung, prostate, and bladder cancer. The number of new FDA approvals in oncology in recent months is reflective of the scientific fervor and innovation underway to fill this need. From November 2016 through October 2017, the FDA approved a record 18 new cancer therapies and 13 new uses of cancer therapies. By comparison, in the same timeframe in the previous year, there were eight new cancer therapies and 13 new uses approved, and a similar number in 2015. Most of these new and expanded uses are associated with an improvement in patient survival and or quality of life. This session discusses more about advancements in cancer treatments
Molecular Biology methods used to study the molecular basis of biological activity. Most commonly used methods are protein methods, immunostaining methods, nucleic acid methods. These methods used to explore cells, their characteristics, parts, and chemical processes, and pays special attention to how molecules control a cell’s activities and growth. Molecular Biology Techniques include DNA cloning, cut and paste DNA, bacterial transformation , transfection, chromosome integration, cellular screening, cellular culture, extraction of DNA, DNA polymerase DNA dependent, reading and writing DNA, DNA sequencing, DNA synthesis, molecular hybridization, rewriting DNA: mutations, random mutagenesis, point mutation, chromosome mutation. Most important techniques are Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Expression cloning, Gel electrophoresis, Macromolecule blotting and probing, Arrays such as DNA array and protein array. This session discusses more about microbiology and molecular genetics
The Food and Drug Administration's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) regulates human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/P) intended for implantation, transplantation, infusion or transfer into a human recipient, including hematopoietic stem cells. The FDA has published comprehensive requirements such as current good tissue practice, donor screening and donor testing requirements, to prevent the introduction, transmission and spread of communicable disease. Stem cells sourced from cord blood for unrelated allogeneic use also are regulated by the FDA, and a license is required for distribution of these products. The FDA requires a review process in which manufacturers must show how products will be manufactured so that the FDA can make certain that appropriate steps are taken to assure purity and potency. This session discusses more about regulation of stem cells. Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues. Tissue engineering involves the use of a tissue scaffold for the formation of new viable tissue for a medical purpose. While it was once categorized as a sub-field of biomaterials, having grown in scope and importance it can be considered as a field in its own. While most definitions of tissue engineering cover a broad range of applications, in practice the term is closely associated with applications that repair or replace portions of or whole tissues such as bone, cartilage, blood vessels, bladder, skin, muscle etc. This session discusses more about tissue engineering
Cell Science or cellular biology is a branch of biology that studies cells physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division, death and cell function. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cellular Biology is also referred to as Cytology. Cellular Biology mainly revolves around the basic and fundamental concept that cell is the fundamental unit of life. The most important concept of Cellular Biology is the cell theory which states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells; the cell is the basic unit of life in all living things; and all cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells. This session discusses more about cell science and development. Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the processes of replication, transcription, translation, and cell function. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being oversimplified, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. The picture has been revised in light of emerging novel roles for RNA. Cellular Molecular Biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. This session discusses more about molecular biology and cellular molecular biology
The current research in Cell and Molecular Biology explores cells, their characteristics, parts, and chemical processes, and pays special attention to how molecules control a cell’s activities and growth. The molecular components make up biochemical pathways that provide the cells with energy, facilitate processing messages from outside the cell itself, generate new proteins, and replicate the cellular DNA genome. Cell and Molecular Biology mainly focuses on the determination of cell fate and differentiation, growth regulation of cell, cell adhesion and movement, intracellular trafficking. The relationship of signaling to cellular growth and death, transcriptional regulation, mitosis, cellular differentiation and organogenesis, cell adhesion, motility and chemotaxis are more complex topics under cellular and molecular biology. This session discusses more about current research in cell and molecular biology
Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering. Microbial genetics studies microorganisms for different purposes. The microorganisms that are observed are bacteria, and archaea. Some fungi and protozoa are also subjects used to study in this field. Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the processes of replication, transcription, translation, and cell function. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being oversimplified, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. The picture has been revised in light of emerging novel roles for RNA. Cellular Molecular Biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. This session discusses more about molecular biology and cellular molecular biology.
Recombinant DNA technology joining together of DNA molecules from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, and industry. Since the focus of all genetics is the gene, the fundamental goal of laboratory geneticists is to isolate, characterize and manipulate genes. Although it is relatively easy to isolate a sample of DNA from a collection of cells finding a specific gene within this DNA sample can be compared to finding a needle in a haystack. However recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to isolate one gene or any other segment of DNA enabling researchers to determine its nucleotide sequence, study its transcripts, mutate it in highly specific ways, and reinsert the modified sequence into a living organism. This session discusses more about recombinant DNA Technology
Nanotechnology is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. Nanotechnology is an excellent future prospect for biomaterial and nanotechnology in the field of medicine. Nanomedicine “the application of nanotechnology to health” showed an exponential growth for the last two decades. In now day’s nanoparticles are showing a great interest because of their unique optical, magnetic, electrical, and other properties emerge.Nanotechnology is mostly used for regeneration practices and cancer treatment.
Thewell-established and widely used stem celltreatment is the transplantation of blood stem cellswhich is used to treat and restore blood cells and immune system. Stem celltherapy is widely practised since bone marrow has been used to treat peoplewith cancer conditions such as leukaemia and lymphoma. The US National MarrowDonor Program has done research with a full list of diseases treatable by bloodstem celltransplant. It shows that more than 26,000 patients are treated with blood stemcells in Europe each year. The Stem cellsare the factories which produce the compounds used for the healing process ingreat variety and amount. Currently, Stem Celltherapies are often used in abortion politics and human cloning
Regenerative medicine includes the possibility of growing tissues and organs in the laboratory and implanting them when the body cannot heal itself. If a regenerated organ's cells would be derived from the patient's own tissue or cells, this would potentially solve the problem of the shortage of organs available for donation, and the problem of organ transplant rejection. Some of the biomedical approaches within the field of regenerative medicine may involve the use of stem cells. Examples include the injection of stem cells or progenitor cells obtained through directed differentiation such as cell therapies; the induction of regeneration by biologically active molecules administered alone or as a secretion by infused cells like immunomodulation therapy; and transplantation of in vitro grown organs and tissues such as tissue engineering.
Plant molecular biology is a highly specialized science for exploring plant cells and even altering them to increase the usefulness of plants in everyday life. The other areas that are concerned with plant molecular biology are agriculture, food science, healthcare, environmental science and teaching. Plant molecular biology explores the role of certain cells, their function in plant life and methods to alter those cells to greater effect. Some of the most common traits studied are reactions to various stresses, resistance to common disease and minerals contained within the plant. With training in plant molecular biology, especially at the graduate level, graduates can explore diverse careers in agriculture, micro- and molecular biology, biochemistry, ecology and teaching. This session discusses more about plant molecular biology.
Bioinformatics the science of grouping and analyzing advanced biological knowledge like genetic codes. Molecular medication needs the mixing and analysis of genomic, molecular, cellular, additionally as clinical knowledge and it, therefore, offers an interesting set of challenges to bioinformatics. Bioinformatics these days has an important role each, in deciphering genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic knowledge generated by high-throughput experimental technologies, and in organizing data gathered from ancient biology and medication. analysis Centers for Bioinformatics are: National Centers for medicine Computing, National Center for Simulation of Biological Structures, National Center for the Multistage Analysis of Genomic and Cellular Networks, National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC), National Center for medicine metaphysics (NCBO) at university, Integrate knowledge for Analysis, Anonymization, and Sharing (IDASH) at the University of California, San Diego. The Canadian government is additionally ponying up money for omits analysis, with the North American country Foundation for Innovation backing many comes as a part of a C$30.4 million ($27.6 million) investment in an educational analysis. McGill University scooped the joint-biggest award for a project, C$400,000, to advance its single-cell genetics infrastructure.
Biochemistry is the branch of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. It is a laboratory based science that brings together biology and chemistry. By using chemical knowledge and techniques, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems. Biochemistry emphasizes on the study of chemical processes occurring in the living organisms. It is the branch of science that helps to explore the various chemical processes occurring within and related to the living matter and studies these mechanisms by using chemical knowledge and techniques to understand and solve biological problems. Biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. This session discusses more about biochemistry
Genomics is a study of structure, capacity, and advancement of genomes. A genome is finished arrangement of DNA with its qualities. Hereditary qualities allude singular qualities, while genome centers around the entire arrangement of qualities. Cutting edge genomic sequencing let clinicians and specialists to a great degree increment the genomic information gathered on expansive investigation populaces. The focal authoritative opinion of molecular biology is the investigation of the coast of hereditary data in a natural framework. The creed is for a view of the exchange of grouping data betwixt bio-polymers in living life forms.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the function of genetic science in drug response. A computational advance in Pharmacogenomics has proved to be a blessing in studies. A large number of studies within the biomedical sciences relating to Pharmacogenomics as of late stems from combinatorial chemistry, genomic mining, technologies, and high throughput screening. So as for the sector to grow rich data businesses and business have to work more closely together and adopt simulation techniques
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